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基于数字孪生和深度强化学习的矿井超前液压支架自适应抗冲支护方法

张帆 邵光耀 李昱翰 李玉雪

张帆,邵光耀,李昱翰,等. 基于数字孪生和深度强化学习的矿井超前液压支架自适应抗冲支护方法[J]. 工矿自动化,2024,50(6):23-29, 45.  doi: 10.13272/j.issn.1671-251x.2023090004
引用本文: 张帆,邵光耀,李昱翰,等. 基于数字孪生和深度强化学习的矿井超前液压支架自适应抗冲支护方法[J]. 工矿自动化,2024,50(6):23-29, 45.  doi: 10.13272/j.issn.1671-251x.2023090004
ZHANG Fan, SHAO Guangyao, LI Yuhan, et al. Adaptive impact resistance support method for advanced hydraulic supports in mines based on digital twins and deep reinforcement learning[J]. Journal of Mine Automation,2024,50(6):23-29, 45.  doi: 10.13272/j.issn.1671-251x.2023090004
Citation: ZHANG Fan, SHAO Guangyao, LI Yuhan, et al. Adaptive impact resistance support method for advanced hydraulic supports in mines based on digital twins and deep reinforcement learning[J]. Journal of Mine Automation,2024,50(6):23-29, 45.  doi: 10.13272/j.issn.1671-251x.2023090004

基于数字孪生和深度强化学习的矿井超前液压支架自适应抗冲支护方法

doi: 10.13272/j.issn.1671-251x.2023090004
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目(2022Z03010004);国家自然科学基金面上项目(52374165);国家自然科学基金创新研究群体项目(52121003)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张帆(1972—),男,甘肃会宁人,教授,博士研究生导师,博士,研究方向为矿山数字孪生、智能监控与通信,E-mail:zf@cumtb.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TD67/355

Adaptive impact resistance support method for advanced hydraulic supports in mines based on digital twins and deep reinforcement learning

  • 摘要: 受深部开采冲击地压等地质灾害扰动的影响,存在矿井超前支护系统自感知能力差、智能抗冲自适应能力弱、缺乏决策控制能力等问题。针对上述问题,提出了一种基于数字孪生和深度强化学习的矿井超前液压支架自适应抗冲支护方法。通过多源传感器感知巷道环境和超前液压支架支护状态,在虚拟世界中创建物理实体的数字孪生模型,其中物理模型精确展现超前液压支架的结构特征和细节,控制模型实现超前液压支架的自适应控制,机理模型实现对超前液压支架自适应支护的逻辑描述和机理解释,数据模型存储超前液压支架实体运行数据和孪生数据,仿真模型完成超前液压支架立柱仿真以实现超前液压支架与数字孪生模型虚实交互。根据基于深度Q网络(DQN)的超前液压支架自适应抗冲决策算法,对仿真环境中巷道抗冲支护进行智能决策,并依据决策结果对物理实体和数字孪生模型下达调控指令,实现超前液压支架智能控制。实验结果表明:立柱位移与压力变化一致,说明超前液压支架立柱仿真模型设计合理,从而验证了数字孪生模型的准确性;基于DQN的矿井超前液压支架自适应抗冲决策算法可通过调节液压支架控制器PID参数,自适应调控立柱压力,提升巷道安全等级,实现超前液压支架自适应抗冲支护。

     

  • 图  1  基于数字孪生和深度强化学习的矿井超前液压支架自适应抗冲支护技术架构

    Figure  1.  Adaptive impact resistance support technology architecture for mine advanced hydraulic support based on digital twin and deep reinforcement learning

    图  2  GWO−BP控制原理

    Figure  2.  Grey wolf optimization(GWO)-BP control principle

    图  3  机理模型结构

    Figure  3.  Mechanism model structure

    图  4  超前液压支架自适应抗冲决策流程

    Figure  4.  Adaptive impact resistance decision-making flow of advanced hydraulic support

    图  5  基于DQN的超前液压支架自适应抗冲决策算法原理

    Figure  5.  Principle of adaptive impact resistance decision-making algorithm of advanced hydraulic support based on deep Q-network(DQN)

    图  6  立柱位移与压力变化曲线

    Figure  6.  Change curves of column displacement and pressure

    图  7  基于DQN的超前液压支架自适应抗冲决策算法奖励收敛曲线

    Figure  7.  Reward convergence curve of adaptive impact resistance decision-making algorithm of advanced hydraulic support based on deep Q-network(DQN)

    表  1  深度强化学习算法对比

    Table  1.   Comparison of deep reinforcement learning algorithms

    算法 优点 缺点
    DQN 通过经验池进行随机小批量的采样训练,打破数据之间的相关性;采用每隔N次迭代更新目标Q网络的方法,提高Q网络稳定性 对目标Q网络采取最大化操作,对Q值的估计过高;训练数据规模较小
    DDPG 同时建立Q值函数和策略函数;适用于连续动作的任务,稳定性好 对参数敏感;处理规模较大、时间较长,需要很强的GPU
    PPO 对智能体的策略函数进行优化,减少数据收集难度;适用于复杂场景和大规模训练 序列数据收集困难;对超参数选择敏感
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  超前液压支架立柱仿真模型参数

    Table  2.   Simulation model parameters of advanced hydraulic support column

    参数 参数
    阀芯质量/kg 0.2 活塞杆直径/mm 10
    活塞杆质量/kg 15 间隙直径/mm 0.02
    反馈信号比例系数 5 比例阀阀杆直径/mm 10
    阀芯控制比例系数 2 比例阀阀芯直径/mm 15
    液压油密度/(kg·m−3 920 顶板刚度系数/(N·mm−1 15000
    液压油压力/MPa 41.50 顶板阻尼系数/(N·s·m−1 20
    活塞直径/mm 30
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  巷道应力参数及安全系数

    Table  3.   Stress parameters and safety factors of roadway

    巷道
    区间/m
    围岩
    应力/MPa
    支护
    应力/MPa
    临界
    应力/MPa
    应力安
    全系数
    能量安
    全系数
    安全
    等级
    0~33 17.50 0.28 33.67 1.9 1.09 A
    33~53 26.25 0.28 33.67 1.3 1.09 C
    53~65 17.50 0.28 33.67 1.9 1.09 A
    65~238 24.50 0.28 33.67 1.4 1.09 C
    238~338 29.75 0.28 33.67 0.9 1.09 C
    338~613 24.50 0.28 33.67 1.4 1.09 C
    613~713 29.75 0.28 33.67 0.9 1.09 C
    713~1186 24.50 0.28 33.67 1.4 1.09 C
    1186~1732 17.50 0.28 33.67 1.9 1.09 A
    1732~1763 21.00 0.28 33.67 1.6 1.09 A
    1763~2660 17.50 0.28 33.67 1.9 1.09 A
    2660~2680 21.00 0.28 33.67 1.6 1.09 A
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  基于DQN的超前液压支架自适应抗冲决策算法训练参数

    Table  4.   Training parameters of adaptive impact resistance decision-making algorithm of advanced hydraulic support based on deep Q-network(DQN)

    参数 参数
    经验池大小 2 000 最终概率 0.1
    批量大小 64 目标值Q网络更新频率/步 50
    折扣因子 0.95 训练轮次 480
    初始概率 0.9 最大步数 100
    概率的衰减系数 0.99
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  智能决策调控前后巷道状态对比

    Table  5.   Comparison of roadway state before and after intelligent decision control

    巷道区间/m 初始巷道状态 调控后PID参数 调控后巷道状态
    立柱
    压力/MPa
    临界
    应力/MPa
    应力安
    全系数
    安全等级 KP KI KD 立柱
    压力/MPa
    临界
    应力/MPa
    应力安
    全系数
    安全等级
    65~238 17.21 33.67 1.4 C 0.6193 0.5841 0.6736 40.28 37.76 1.6 A
    65~238 22.90 33.67 1.4 C 0.6187 0.5843 0.6738 40.31 37.76 1.6 A
    338~613 21.25 33.67 1.4 C 0.6197 0.5861 0.6766 40.26 37.76 1.6 A
    338~613 23.80 33.67 1.4 C 0.6193 0.5841 0.6736 40.32 37.76 1.6 A
    713~1 186 17.21 33.67 1.4 C 0.6198 0.5861 0.6766 40.28 37.76 1.6 A
    713~1 186 22.55 33.67 1.4 C 0.6187 0.5851 0.6746 40.41 37.76 1.6 A
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-09-01
  • 修回日期:  2024-06-27
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-07-04

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