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复杂条件工作面智能化开采关键技术及发展趋势

张帅 任怀伟 韩安 巩师鑫

张帅,任怀伟,韩安,等. 复杂条件工作面智能化开采关键技术及发展趋势[J]. 工矿自动化,2022,48(3):16-25.  doi: 10.13272/j.issn.1671-251x.2021090041
引用本文: 张帅,任怀伟,韩安,等. 复杂条件工作面智能化开采关键技术及发展趋势[J]. 工矿自动化,2022,48(3):16-25.  doi: 10.13272/j.issn.1671-251x.2021090041
ZHANG Shuai, REN Huaiwei, HAN An, et al. Key technology and development trend of intelligent mining in complex condition working face[J]. Journal of Mine Automation,2022,48(3):16-25.  doi: 10.13272/j.issn.1671-251x.2021090041
Citation: ZHANG Shuai, REN Huaiwei, HAN An, et al. Key technology and development trend of intelligent mining in complex condition working face[J]. Journal of Mine Automation,2022,48(3):16-25.  doi: 10.13272/j.issn.1671-251x.2021090041

复杂条件工作面智能化开采关键技术及发展趋势

doi: 10.13272/j.issn.1671-251x.2021090041
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金重点项目(51834006);国家自然科学基金面上项目(51874174);中国煤炭科工集团科技专项重点项目(2019-TD-ZD001)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张帅(1998-),男,山西运城人,硕士研究生,主要研究方向为矿山装备自动化,E-mail:sxzhangshuai@163.com

  • 中图分类号: TD82

Key technology and development trend of intelligent mining in complex condition working face

  • 摘要: 复杂条件煤层地质条件参数变化数量多、参数变化范围大,其智能化开采是当前迫切需要解决的难题。分析了我国不同区域煤矿的主要地质条件特征及面临的问题,指出相较于综合机械化采煤,智能化开采对地质保障度的要求更高。地质条件越复杂,控制系统就越需要更精准的感知、更快速的分析与决策、更高的数据传输速率。以两淮地区“三软”煤层开采为例,探讨了其在智能化开采过程中面临的问题:煤壁频繁片帮、刮板输送机上窜下滑、相邻支架错位及咬合不紧密、护帮板不整齐、支架扎底、超前巷道变形,指出围岩(顶底板、煤壁)条件、煤层走向/倾向角度、矿压及超前巷道稳定性是影响工作面正常连续开采的5个因素。为解决上述5个因素条件参数变化带来的问题,需要从围岩参数感知、趋势分析、精细化控制、动力系统适应、自适应决策等方面研发出解决复杂条件工作面智能化开采的关键核心技术。详细阐述了目前实现复杂条件工作面智能化开采技术即液压支架护帮板精准控制及快速跟机技术、顶板分区协同支护技术、工作面装备姿态监测技术、工作面调直技术、上窜下滑控制技术、稳压供液控制技术、仿真决策系统平台和超前支护技术的应用现状、效果及后续需要解决的问题。指出对于多种复杂条件共存的煤层,关键元部件的机电液一体化设计、分布式控制方式、大数据的分析应用、装备群协同快速推进控制和实时仿真平台与智能决策系统的开发是后续研究的主要方向。

     

  • 图  1  140502工作面倾向起伏情况

    Figure  1.  Tendency fluctuation of 140502 working face

    图  2  工作面煤壁片帮情况

    Figure  2.  Coal wall spalling of working face

    图  3  超前巷道

    Figure  3.  Advance roadway

    图  4  工作面三机装备布置及关键技术

    Figure  4.  Three machines equipment layout and key technologies in working face

    图  5  液压支架三级护帮板

    Figure  5.  Three-level guard plate of hydraulic support

    图  6  开采装备全位姿测量系统

    Figure  6.  Full position and pose measurement system of mining equipment

    图  7  基于惯导系统的工作面自动找直

    Figure  7.  Automatic alignment of working face based on inertial navigation system

    图  8  基于激光对位传感器的工作面直线度控制方法

    Figure  8.  Straightness control method of working face based on laser alignment sensor

    图  9  仿真决策平台界面

    Figure  9.  Simulation decision platform interface

    图  10  螺旋行走式超前支架

    Figure  10.  Spiral walking advance support

    图  11  运输巷运−支一体化系统

    Figure  11.  Transportation and support integration system in transportation roadway

    表  1  我国不同区域煤矿的主要地质条件特征及面临的问题

    Table  1.   Main characteristics of geological conditions and problems of coal mines in different regions of China

    地区特征问题
    晋陕蒙地区埋深浅、煤层厚、煤质硬开始出现冲击地压、
    厚煤层工作面围岩控制难
    东北地区开采深度深、煤层厚度差异大、
    倾角大
    最早出现冲击地压,
    开采难度大
    华北地区埋藏深、煤层薄冲击地压强烈、高地温、
    高地压
    两淮地区“三软”煤层煤壁片帮严重、顶底板破碎、
    超前巷道变形量大
    西南地区煤层薄、倾角大开采难度大、经济效益低
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  复杂条件工作面智能化开采关键技术部分研究成果

    Table  2.   Some research results on key technologies of intelligent mining under complex conditions working face

    关键技术研究成果
    液压支架护帮板精准控制
    及快速跟机技术
    0.4倍采高是护帮重点;优化三级护帮
    结构;成组移架
    顶板分区协同支护技术工作面分区支护和分区推进协同控制;
    三机协同控制策略
    工作面装备姿态监测技术新型传感手段;高速通信;视觉测量;
    多信息融合
    工作面调直技术采煤机惯导定位;精准拉架控制
    上窜下滑控制技术改进割煤工艺;外力干预控制技术
    稳压供液控制技术智能泵站按需稳压供液
    仿真决策系统平台三维仿真;实时数据驱动
    超前支护技术超前支架自适应支护;回风巷超前支架
    搬运小车;运支一体化超前支护系统
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-09-13
  • 修回日期:  2021-12-21
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-03-05

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