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地下煤火火源探测研究

邓军 屈高阳 任帅京 王伟峰 王彩萍 王津睿

邓军,屈高阳,任帅京,等. 地下煤火火源探测研究[J]. 工矿自动化,2023,49(6):68-77.  doi: 10.13272/j.issn.1671-251x.18096
引用本文: 邓军,屈高阳,任帅京,等. 地下煤火火源探测研究[J]. 工矿自动化,2023,49(6):68-77.  doi: 10.13272/j.issn.1671-251x.18096
DENG Jun, QU Gaoyang, REN Shuaijing, et al. Research on underground coal fire source detection[J]. Journal of Mine Automation,2023,49(6):68-77.  doi: 10.13272/j.issn.1671-251x.18096
Citation: DENG Jun, QU Gaoyang, REN Shuaijing, et al. Research on underground coal fire source detection[J]. Journal of Mine Automation,2023,49(6):68-77.  doi: 10.13272/j.issn.1671-251x.18096

地下煤火火源探测研究

doi: 10.13272/j.issn.1671-251x.18096
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金资助项目(52074215,52204239);陕西省自然科学基础研究计划资助项目(2022JQ-517);博士后科学基金资助项目(2022M722557)。
详细信息
    作者简介:

    邓军(1970—),男,四川大竹人,教授,博士,博士研究生导师,主要研究方向为煤火灾害防治研究,E-mail:dengj518@xust.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TD75

Research on underground coal fire source detection

  • 摘要: 介绍了煤火的演化发展过程及煤火的特点,阐述了按照探测器空间位置不同划分的4层空间探测技术,即地下探测法、地表探测法、航空探测法及航天探测法的探测机理及研究进展,分析了上述4种探测技术的优缺点。指出现有研究存在的问题:① 探测精度不足,获取范围难以精准圈定。② 探测技术落后,火区高温点精准探测困难。③ 探测手段单一,无法准确判断地下煤火燃烧具体信息。针对地下煤火呈现出隐蔽性、耦合性、复杂性等新特点,提出了地下煤火火源探测技术发展方向:① 对探测仪器数据进行精细化处理,提高磁性差对温度的灵敏度、电阻率法的检测精度、红外探测法的特征提取率及结果精度。② 将高新设备应用于煤火探测技术。③ 完善多层级探测技术的协同利用。首先通过第4层级航天遥感技术进行大规模的火区探测,得到地下煤火异常的基本空间分布特征;然后通过第3层级航空遥感探测技术进一步探测,得到具体的地下煤火空间分布;最后通过第2和第1层级的地表探测技术及地下探测技术进行补充和验证,得到更加详细的煤田火区高温点分布。④ 形成对煤田火区的三维可视化、动态化监测与预警。针对4种不同层级探测技术的数据进行三维反演、联合反演成像,根据成像结果,对煤火发展蔓延进行可视化监测预警,实现地下煤火灾害主动防控。

     

  • 表  1  地下煤火探测技术对比

    Table  1.   Comparison of underground coal fire detection technoloies

    空间方法原理优点缺点
    地下探测法 钻孔指标气体分析法 煤在燃烧的不同阶段产生的气体种类和浓度不同 成本效益高,不受地形限制 气体会随着裂隙往上漂移,导致定位有偏差
    钻孔测温法 在火烧区地表钻探取芯测温 可以直接靠近火源探测温度 成本高昂,不能完成火区大比例尺填图
    地表探测法 地面温度测量法 根据地表探测的温度推断火区的着火范围及发展趋势 对浅埋煤层的煤田火区探查效果好 易受通风和环境条件的影响,如太阳辐射、风和降水
    电阻率法 比较未发火区和发火区电阻值的差异 操作简单方便 受大地杂散电流干扰大
    磁法探测 岩石经高温烧变后铁磁物质磁性变化 抗干扰性好,经济适用性强 探测深度有限,分辨率不够高
    自然电位法 煤层燃烧引起自然电位异常 结果可靠,简单易操作 多热解温度与非高温情况不适用
    瞬变电磁法 根据观测地下介质感应产生的二次场进行高温点探测 对阻值异常区有较强的分辨力 抗干扰能力差
    地质雷达探测 高频电磁波在介质分界面会产生反射 操作简单方便快捷 探测深度有限
    测氡法 测量地表的氡含量反推地下煤火温度 操作简单灵活 受到埋深、火区上覆岩层性质、地表大气流动、地层水分含量的影响
    电磁辐射法 基于煤体温度与电磁辐射信号强度的相关性 非接触,无需钻孔 信号的作用机制尚处于研究阶段
    航空探测法 航空热红外遥感探测 以航空器为载体,探测煤田火区表面植被或岩石辐射的特性差异信息 节省时间,与煤火有关的信息丰富 热红外波段分辨率较低,对红外信息不能很好的反映
    航空多光谱遥感探测 以航空器为载体,利用波谱曲线和波段之间波谱特征的差异提取相关的热信息 探测时间短,可大面积探测煤田火区 易受太阳辐射、坡向、坡度和其他热源的影响
    航空高光谱遥感探测 用窄而连续的光谱通道持续对地面遥感成像 操作简单方便,节省时间 空间分辨率较低,对小块煤火显示误差较大
    航天探测法 航天热红外与高分辨率遥感探测 结合地表温度、风力等地质信息,通过星载热红外与高分辨率遥感查看煤火燃烧痕迹和现象 成本效益高,节省时间,准确性好 采集的光谱信息有限
    航天多光谱遥感探测 以航天器为载体,利用波谱曲线和波段之间波谱特征的差异提取相关的热信息 能够有效探测大规模煤火 易受太阳辐射、坡向、坡度及其他热源的影响
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-04-03
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